Gilly Salmon & Ken Giles
Open University Business School, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom
Introducing CMC into the Media Mix
Developing CMC Competence
Creating the On-Screen Environment
- Ideal Numbers and timing of moderator interventions
- Creating Effective On-screen Environments
This paper is about how we attempted to overcome barriers to the use of Computer Mediated Conferencing (CMC) for effective learning in Open University Business School (OUBS) courses and the implications for successful implementation. We begin with a brief overview of potential barriers and the ways in which we attempted to overcome them. We then expand on this in the remainder of the paper. This practitioner perspective is based on an action research study in the OUBS, involving 300 part time management tutors using CMC based on FirstClassTM software as part of their multi-media distance learning courses (Salmon & Giles 1999). The results reported in this paper are intended to be a guide to help practitioners to make the most of the pedagogic opportunities provided by CMC.
Computer Mediated Conferencing, Management Teaching and Learning, Distance Education, Online Moderating, Conferencing Structures and Environments
In the distance learning media mix the pedagogic benefits of earlier generations of non-print media, such as television programmes, audio- and videocassettes, could not be taken for granted and as self-evident. Thus students and indeed tutors needed to be coached in the use of TV for active learning purposes, when all their previous experience of it had been as a passive entertainment medium.
CMC is a recent and potentially radical addition
to the distance learning media mix. Paulsen defines CMC as:
"...transmission and reception of messages using computers as input, storage, output and routing devices. Computer mediated conferencing (CMC) includes information retrieval, electronic mail, bulletin boards, and computer conferencing." p.3).
Three types of technology are involved in computer conferencing:
Certain characteristics mark out CMC as making demands of a different order on its users for learning purposes. There are technical requirements in terms of hardware and user skills in terms of software; online, there is a need to become familiar with new ways of interacting asynchronously, without the interactive clues of face-to-face contact, and through "say-writing" (Mason 1993).
Successful outcomes of the use of CMC should lead to:
who will work effectively online, given
Given a decision to introduce CMC into the media mix in a distance learning course, to do so successfully involves overcoming a range of potential barriers to implementation. These include:
To overcome these barriers involves the design of a conferencing environment that addresses:
At the stage of implementation, this for us meant
"Distance learning has always favoured the highly motivated, well organised and accomplished learner, "(Rowntree 1995 p. 214). For the use of CMC to be successful, the best practices of distance learning need to be created online. This involves tutor training and development, and student support, as well as explicitly articulated structures for courses and programmes. The use of CMC needs to become as habitual and natural for students as reading, watching TV or listening to a lecture. Key features for successful implementation, therefore, involve enabling access and induction into CMC in advance of the start of the course, and the training of online moderators (the term used for online facilitators) before they are expected to take responsibility for conferences. This ensures that they become CMC practitioners before they need to concentrate on the demanding aspects of helping students to cope with the demands of the course itself.
Content analysis of messages from earlier purely voluntary use of CMC by OUBS students and tutors, and insights gained from focus groups of users, suggested a structure for introducing CMC that might help to overcome the potential barriers to successful implementation outlined above (Hillman 1994). No user went through what had previously been considered the usual way of creating competence in the use of software, i.e. they did not first learn all there was to know about the software and then exploit it for course related learning. Their approaches were instead gradual development of competency from novice to expert and associated at each stage with increasing integration into a community of online practice. The users learnt aspects of the software, how to get the best from using the system and the CMC context. They asked for support that was relevant to their learning needs at each stage from the online helpers. The implications of this finding are that, although online training should be staged, it should include support for development of skills in software techniques and in learning and moderating skills at the point of learners needs.
A Five-stage model for CMC induction was subsequently developed to reflect this. The commentary on the stages that follows indicates our purposes at each stage in the training programme we based on it.
Figure 1 A Five Stage Model
Initial access - getting online - and the ability of participants to use CMC are essential prerequisites before anything further can be achieved. They need help to overcome this initial barrier. Stage 1 aims to get participants logged in and started effectively. CMC is a new and potentially alien world for many participants . They need to familiarise themselves with the culture of the new online world and understand the answer to the question, "Whats going on here and how should I behave?" This is accomplished at Stage 2 where students are helped both to become comfortable with the software skills required, to find others with whom to interact and to avoid unnecessary and possibly publicly embarrassing mistakes.
At Stage 3, the users are encouraged to seek and give information to each other. Stage 4 aims to encourage the development of group discussions. Up to and including Stage 3, a form of co-operation appeared to be occurring in our users - i.e. they were supportive of each persons goals. At Stage 4 however, the interaction could be considered collaborative and the communication depended much more on the establishment of common understandings (Lewis 1996). At Stage 5, the users were typically looking for more benefits from the system to achieve personal goals and the training programme was constructed to encourage this.
Teachers and moderators need to understand how to create an effective, on-screen conferencing environments. This requires a prior determination of the purpose of the conference and concise online instructions with clear navigation through the conferencing, as well as effective moderation. To achieve this, the following points need to be addressed.
The ideal number of participants depends on the purpose of a conference:
To create an effective on-screen environment, it is necessary to:
Figure 2: Example of Screen From FirstClassTM showing Online Moderator Training
Productive online conferencing can be achieved in large scale distance learning courses if attention is given to the practical points described above. Successful educational conferencing depends on the proper induction of students, trained moderators and the creation and maintenance of a viable on-screen learning environments.
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