Open Badges: A systematic Review of Peer-Reviewed Published Literature (2011-2015)

Tharindu R. Liyanagunawardena [tharindu@ucem.ac.uk], Sandra Scalzavara [s.scalzavara@ucem.ac.uk], University College of Estate Management, Horizons, 60 Queens Road, Reading RG1 4BS [https://www.ucem.ac.uk], Shirley A. Williams [shirley.williams@reading.ac.uk], University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, [www.reading.ac.uk], United Kingdom

Abstract

Open badges are a digital representation of skills or accomplishments recorded in a visual symbol that is embedded with verifiable data and evidence. They are created following a defined open standard, so that they can be shared online. Open badges have gained popularity around the world in recent years and have become a standard feature of many learning management systems. This paper presents a systematic literature review of the published open badges literature from 2011 to 2015. Through database searches, searching the internet and chaining from known sources, 135 relevant peer-reviewed papers were identified from a corpus of 247 publications for this review. The authors believe this to be the first effort to systematically review literature relating to open badges. The review categorised publications while also providing quantitative analysis of publications according to publication type, year of publication and contributors. After assessing the literature suggestions for future research directions are presented, based on under-represented areas.

Abstract in French

Les badges ouverts, sont une représentation numérique de compétences ou de realisations, enregistrés dans un symbole visuel intégré à des données vérifiables et à des preuves. Ils sont créés en suivant une norme ouverte définie, afin qu'ils puissent être partagés en ligne. Les badges ouverts ont gagné en popularité a travers le monde ces dernières années et sont devenus une caractéristique standard de nombreux systèmes de gestion de l'apprentissage. Cet article présente une revue systématique de la littérature des badges ouverts publiés de 2011 à 2015. Grâce à des recherches de bases de données, en recherchant l’Internet et à la mise en chaîne de sources connues, 135 documents pertinents évalués par des pairs ont été identifiés à partir d'un corpus de 247 publications pour cette revue. Les auteurs pensent que cette revue systématiquement de la la littérature relative aux badges ouverts est une première. L'évaluation a catégorisé les publications tout en fournissant une analyse quantitative des publications selon le type de publication, l'année de publication et les contributeurs. Après avoir évalué la literature, des suggestions pour orienter la recherche dans le future sont présentés en fonction des zones sous-représentées.

Abstract in Portuguese

Badges abertas são uma representação digital de habilidades ou conquistas registradas através de um símbolo visual embutido com dados e provas verificáveis. Elas são criadas seguindo um padrão aberto definido, para que elas possam ser compartilhadas virtualmente. As badges abertas ganharam popularidade em todo o mundo nos últimos anos e se tornaram uma característica padrão de muitos sistemas de gerenciamento de aprendizagem. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sistemática da literatura pubicada entre 2011 a 2015 referentes as badges abertas. Através de buscas de banco de dados, pesquisa na internet e encadeamento de fontes conhecidas, 135 documentos relevantes que foram revisados por pares foram identificados a partir de um banco de 247 publicações sobre este assunto. Os autores acreditam que este seja o primeiro esforço para revisar sistematicamente a literatura relacionada as badges abertas. A revisão categorizou as publicações, além de fornecer análises quantitativas de publicações de acordo com o tipo de publicação, ano de publicação e contribuintes. Depois de avaliar as sugestões da literatura, futuras orientações de pesquisa são apresentadas com uma base em áreas sub-representadas.

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Tags

e-learning, distance learning, distance education, online learning, higher education, DE, blended learning, ICT, information and communication technology, internet, collaborative learning, learning management system, MOOC, interaction, LMS,

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