The Development of Distance Education Systems in Turkey, the Russian Federation and Saudi Arabia

Olaf Zawacki-Richter [olaf.zawacki.richter@uni-oldenburg.de], Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Germany, Yasar Kondakci [kyasar@metu.edu.tr], Middle East Technical University, Turkey, Svenja Bedenlier [svenja.bedenlier@uni-oldenburg.de], Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Germany, Uthman Alturki [ualturki@ksu.edu.sa], King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

In many countries, open and distance education is perceived as a way to meet the growing need for higher education. This paper explores the development of online and distance education in three countries that are still a white spot on the landscape of international distance education research although they have implemented elaborated distance education systems: Turkey, Russia and Saudi-Arabia. In order to understand the current state of distance education systems in the three countries, their respective systems are described from a historical perspective, compared in regard to their organization, important institutions for open and distance education and current developments. This comparative analysis directs the focus on little investigated education systems and contributes to an enhanced understanding of their past, present, and future.

Abstract in German

In zahlreichen Ländern wird open and distance education mittlerweile als Weg gesehen, dem steigenden Bedarf an Hochschulbildung zu begegnen. In dem vorliegenden Artikel werden die Fernstudiensysteme der Türkei, Russland und Saudi Arabien analysiert; Länder, die trotz ihrer etablierten Systeme in diesem Kontext bislang wenig beforscht wurden. Um die aktuell existierende Situation des Fernstudiums in diesen Ländern zu verstehen, werden die jeweiligen Systeme aus einer historischen Perspektive heraus beschrieben und hinsichtlich ihrer Organisation, zentraler Institutionen und momentaner Entwicklungstendenzen verglichen. Dieser Vergleich bedeutet eine Fokussierung auf bislang wenig analysierte Bildungssysteme und trägt zu einem erweiterten Verständnis ihrer Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft bei.

Abstract in Turkish

Açık ve uzaktan eğitim birçok ülkede yükseköğretime yönelik giderek artan talebe cevap vermenin bir aracı olarak görülmektedir. Bu çalışmada Türkiye, Rusya ve Suudi Arabistan‘da açık ve uzaktan eğitimin gelişimi incelenmiştir. Uzaktan eğitim konusunda oldukça büyük ölçekli sistemlere sahip olmalarına karşın, bu üç ülke uzaktan eğitim üzerine var olan uluslararası alanyazında yeterince yer almamışlardır. Bu üç ülkenin uzaktan eğitim sistemlerinin güncel durumunu anlamak için, her bir ülkede uzaktan eğitimin gelişimi tarihsel bir perspektiften ele alınmış, üç ülkenin uzaktan eğitim sistemleri yapı, sahip olunan önemli açık ve uzaktan eğitim kurumları ve güncel gelişmeler bakımından karşılaştırmalı bir şekilde tanımlanmıştır. Bu karşılaştırmalı analiz dikkatleri alanyazında çok az incelenmiş üç eğitim sistemine çekmiş ve incelenen üç eğitim sisteminin geçmişi, bugünü ve yarınının daha iyi anlaşılmasına katkıda bulunmuştur.

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Tags

e-learning, distance learning, distance education, online learning, higher education, DE, blended learning, ICT, information and communication technology, internet, collaborative learning, learning management system, MOOC, interaction, LMS,

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